Objective: to study the state of unemployment in the United States, and to analyze the difference of working occupation, commuting mode and employment mode between the states with different unemployment rates.

Abstract: unemployment rate has always been one of the top concerns of the country. As a superpower, the unemployment rate of the United States is higher than that of other countries. According to the data analysis, the more developed the state, the lower the unemployment rate; States with higher unemployment tend to have fewer men than women, while states with lower unemployment tend to have more equal Numbers of men and women. The median household income, per capita income and unemployment rate do not have much impact; Production workers are the most likely to lose their jobs; The lower unemployment rates in the three states may be partly due to the larger number of freelancers working from home.

Keywords: population census; The unemployment rate. Gender; Job career

1. Case background

In fact, American high unemployment rate depends partly on the country’s “employment standards”. Being unemployed, by definition, means having no job. In the United States, men and women, men and women over the age of 16, people who have not died, whether it’s a prisoner in prison, whether it’s a smuggler coming to the United States, whether it’s a high school student, whether it’s a college student, if there’s a job search, when there’s no job, it’s unemployment.

The data analyzed are the state unemployment rate in the United States from 1990 to 2016, and the U.S. census in 2010, including the number of men and women in each state and county, the proportion of different types of job occupation, the proportion of different commuting ways, and the proportion of different employment methods. Through this data analysis, we hope to find the relationship between unemployment rate and population and improve the status quo of high unemployment rate in the United States.

2、Case study

By analyzing the census data, we can find out the factors influencing the unemployment rate and make timely adjustment. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and monitor the government data. However, due to the large number of government data tables, the content is tedious, and the data changes frequently with time. It will be slightly troublesome to operate with EXCEL. By using the DataFocus product, a large amount of data can be processed rapidly.

 

3、 Case analysis

3.1、comprehensive analysis

3.1.1、Unemployment rate

First, observe the unemployment rate in the United States. Draw the change of the average unemployment rate with the year by the broken line. Observe and find the rule.

The average unemployment rate from 1990 to 2016

As can be seen from the figure, the unemployment rate peaked in 2010, and the lowest in 2000. The overall unemployment rate fluctuated between 4.32% and 9.19%.

3.1.2. State unemployment rates in 2010

As shown in figure 1, the unemployment rate in America in recent years is the highest in 2010. Therefore, the average unemployment rate among different states in America in 2010 was subdivided and sorted to find the difference between different states.


The average unemployment rate in the U.S. states

As can be seen from figure 2, Puerto Rico has the highest unemployment rate in the United States, North Dakota has the lowest, and New York is at medium level. It follows that the more economically developed the state, the lower the unemployment rate.

 

3.2 Compare the population situation of six states

3.2.1. Gender

America’s high unemployment rate has much to do with its “unemployment rate”. Therefore, the three continents with the highest unemployment rate and the three continents with the lowest unemployment rate were selected for the comparison of population situation, respectively, “Puerto Rico”, “Mississippi”, “Arizona”, “Wyoming”, “Nebraska”, and “North Dakota”. Start by looking at the distribution of male and female gender across the six states.

图 3 The number of men and women in the six states

The three states with the highest unemployment rates were Puerto Rico, Mississippi and Arizona, the fifth, second, and first states, and the three states with the highest unemployment rates were Wyoming, Nebraska, and North Dakota, the sixth, third, and fourth states. It can be seen from the figure that the number of men and women in the states with higher unemployment is significantly different, and the number of men in the states with higher unemployment is less than that of women. States with lower unemployment tend to have more equal Numbers of men and women.

3.2.2. Income and its error

Then the effects of median household income, per capita income and its errors on the unemployment rate were observed, and the differences between the six states were compared using the bar chart.

As can be seen from the figure, the median income of “Nebraska” is the highest, and likewise, the per capita income and the error are the largest. Combined with figure 2, “North Dakota” has the lowest unemployment rate, but the state’s median income is not the highest and the income gap is not the largest. Therefore, it can be judged that the median household income, per capita income and unemployment rate have no significant impact.

 

3.2.3. Job distribution

Next, observe the effect of different occupational conditions on the unemployment rate.

 

As can be seen from the figure, no matter the unemployment rate is high or low, the number of people engaged in professional management, business, art and other work is always the largest, followed by those engaged in office and sales work. States with low unemployment tend to have more workers in service than in construction, but states with high unemployment tend to have more workers. Therefore, it can be speculated that production personnel are the most likely to lose their jobs.

 

3.2.4. Commuting mode

Then look at the impact of different commutes on the unemployment rate.

As can be seen from the figure, no matter the unemployment rate is high or low, the most common way to commute is to drive to work, followed by carpooling. But the number of people working from home in states with low unemployment is significantly higher than in states with low unemployment. It can be inferred, therefore, that the lower unemployment rates in the three states may be partly due to more people working from home.

3.2.4. Employment situation

Finally, the effect of different types of employment on the unemployment rate was observed.

As you can see from the chart, the most common employment in states with high or low unemployment is private employment, followed by public employment, followed by freelancing, and finally, unpaid households. You can find that states with low unemployment have more freelancers than states with low unemployment. Therefore, it can be inferred from figure 6 that the low unemployment rate in the three states may be partly due to the large number of freelancers working from home.

3.2.5. Data Pinboards

For ease of observation, put all history questions into the Data Pinboards.

图 8 Data Pinboards

4、Conclusion

Altogether, the highest U.S. unemployment rate was in 2010 in Puerto Rico, which the lowest was in North Dakota, and the median was in New York. It follows that the more economically developed the state, the lower the unemployment rate.

The three states with the highest unemployment rates were Puerto Rico, Mississippi and Arizona, while the three states with the highest unemployment rates were Wyoming, Nebraska and North Dakota. The states with higher unemployment had more men than women, and the states with higher unemployment had fewer men than women. States with lower unemployment tend to have more equal Numbers of men and women.

“Nebraska” had the highest median income, and likewise, the highest per capita income and margin of error. Combined with figure 2, “North Dakota” has the lowest unemployment rate, but the state’s median income is not the highest and the income gap is not the largest. Therefore, it can be judged that the median household income, per capita income and unemployment rate have no significant impact.

Whether high or low unemployment, professional management, business, art and other jobs have been the largest, followed by office and sales jobs. States with low unemployment tend to have more workers in service than in construction, but states with high unemployment tend to have more workers. Therefore, it can be speculated that production personnel are the most likely to lose their jobs.

Whether unemployment is high or low, the most common form of commuting is by car, followed by carpooling. But the number of people working from home in states with low unemployment is significantly higher than in states with low unemployment. It can be inferred, therefore, that the lower unemployment rates in the three states may be partly due to more people working from home.

In states with higher or lower unemployment rates, the most common form of employment is private employment, followed by public employment, followed by freelancing, and finally, unpaid households. You can find that states with low unemployment have more freelancers than states with low unemployment. Therefore, it can be inferred from figure 6 that the low unemployment rate in the three states may be partly due to the large number of freelancers working from home.

5、Suggestions

1. Although the working population of the United States is highly mobile, the excessive unemployment rate and the ups and downs of employment situation will inevitably lead to social instability and drag down the economic development. Therefore, the government should take corresponding measures for the employment of personnel.

2. Compared with men, women are more likely to be unemployed, so a series of decisions can be made to help women find jobs. Similarly, productive jobs are more likely to be unemployed and should be given some help.

3. The government can encourage and support more people to choose some freelances and improve the protection measures for freelancers.

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